Raspberry Pi launch so popular that retail partners collapse under load

Raspberry Pi, an innovative $35 GNU/Linux box in a tiny package, launched yesterday -- sort of. Demand was so hot that all the company's retail partners collapsed under load. From Ars Technica's Ryan Paul:

The product is a bare board with a 700MHz ARM11 CPU and 256MB of RAM. It's roughly the size of a deck of playing cards and has a powerful GPU that is reportedly competitive with that of modern smartphones. Developer prototypes of the product have been shown running impressive graphics demos and decoding high-definition video...

At the time of publication, the Farnell website is still spitting errors. The RS site has been partially restored and is intermittently available, but isn't currently allowing users to purchase the Raspberry Pi. Instead, it displays a screen where users can register to express their interest in the product. The Raspberry Pi foundation managed to withstand the traffic by temporarily replacing the contents of its official website with a static page

Alongside the launch, the Raspberry Pi foundation also announced that the cheaper $25 model, which will be launched at an undisclosed future date, got a spec bump and will have 256MB of RAM, just like the $35 model. The $25 board was originally expected to have only 128MB of RAM. The cheaper model will still lack several of the features found in the $35 model, such as the built-in ethernet controller.


  1. Launch disappointing due to it being essentially a DDoS on ALL THE SERVERS!

    Yet with the news of the spec bump in the model A I’m possibly just gonna get that one. Why? Why not? Cheap tinkerbox I can toss on my TV and play emulated classics on.It’ll be epic!

      1. They did this by switching to a static site rather than host the forum and blog and Everything.

        Behold in how robust the 90’s is even under extream server load.

  2. Great opportunities for cost-effective philanthropy. May get some computers to give away to spread knowledge and truth to rural disadvantaged communties!

    1. I’m thinking similar, I know some disadvantaged rural people working with antique hardware that could really benefit from this. Alternatively considering setting up a computer club in my village hall and funding it myself until enough pennies come in to refund me.

  3.  It is a shame that the suppliers they chose were unable to handle the demand. Hopefully that will be sorted out in the coming days. To all those that are frustrated because they can’t get their hands on one, just remember the saying “Good things come to those who wait”.

    Meanwhile I’m going to be hammering the sites in the vain hope that I can get through and order one myself.

    1.  I find it amazing that there is such huge interest in this product. We bare-board-buying nerds used to be a small bunch.

      1. I wonder if the change in GPU power has anything to do with it. It has been demoed playing Quake3 (Likely chosen for it being open source at the time, i am sure someone will have a go at compiling Doom3  for it at some point) and decoding 1080 video. This means it could potentially be turned into a cheap home entertainment system, that is free of the limitations posed by various organizations and such.

  4. It’s not so much that the popularity is so high, it’s that the launch was totally mismanaged by the Raspberry Pi foundation.

    Everyone knew it would be popular, so they deliberately put all the load into one point in time. By not taking pre-orders and having only 10,000 available at first, everyone who wanted one was waiting to order at 6am EST. 

    Secondly, they have had no idea what their two partners were doing. Telling people to search on the site because they didn’t have a direct link,  not knowing why RS is showing a ‘register for your interest page’, not realizing that both companies are setup to only sell to companies, not individuals. Not having any way of contacting the companies to ask questions. Not even making sure that the people who answer the telephone know about the product.

    If they had had anyone there who was thinking, they would have avoided this whole mess.

    1. Unless, of course, these were all examples of mismanagement by the partner companies, blindsided by a product launch far bigger than they’re used to. I mean, if company A says to company B “OK, we’re launching on this date, this is for the general public to get their hands on them, you can take pre-orders once your initial stock runs out and, be warned, this is big launch and your servers will take a hit”, and company B replies “Sure, no problem”, it’s out of company A’s hands.

      So while I agree there’s been mismanagement, unless you have some insider knowledge I’d argue we can’t point fingers. Having said that, I do find it interesting that, accidental DDOS aside, the issues have all been with one of the two partner companies…

      1. How do you excuse the fact that Raspberry Pi had no clue about what the partners were doing? 

        Random people on the internet were telling Raspberry Pi that RS was putting up a ‘register an interest’ page. Raspberry_Pi’s response was “that’s the wrong page”. They didn’t know the right page, but they knew it was the wrong page. An hour later, the message was ‘That page should change at some point’. A little later, and it was ‘We’re trying to sort it out’, and an hour after that, some other random person on the internet told them that RS was saying they wouldn’t go on sale until the end of the week.

        Raspberry Pi should be the ones giving out information, not learning from others. 

        When I got my first job where I was in charge of other people my boss told me that I could delegate anything I wanted, except responsibility. If I trusted someone, and they messed up, then that means I messed up. 

        Raspberry Pi messed up here, and they need to accept responsibility for that. 

        1.  Yes I saw the same thing. Worse still is that the form on the RS page is buggy – don’t put anything in the bottom box as it just causes the form to reload. You can only submit if that box is empty

      2.  “it’s out of company A’s hands.”

        That would be the bad management bit; expecting everything to go swimmingly and walking away.

        It’s not out of their hands if they choose to manage the release with the suppliers.

        1. Who said we walked away. I can guarantee the lines between the foundation and RS and Farnell have been glowing this morning.

          1.  Heh…  Hi James.  Yeah, I’m of the opinion that Farnell and RS clean dropped the ball on this.  What’s more infuriating is that Premier Farnell’s the parent for one of the MAIN electronics distributors in the USA (Newark…)- they’ve handled similarly rough rollouts of the BeagleBoard and BeagleBone.  This is an epic-fail for THEM

      1. Also, the tone and sentiment of the tweet is very earnest and sincere.  Yeah, give these people a bit of slack.

    2. Guys, get a perspective! It’s a foundation to help bring computing to reach kids. Even if I’m sure they appreciate the involvement of the community,  It’s not primarily there to satisfy your geek needs to have the latest thing the second it comes out.

      Pre-order would have caused exactly the same problem. I’m pretty sure Farnell and RS messed up, not the foundation. I still think going with licensed manufacturing with those companies is the right strategy, building up a supply chain could easily sidetrack the foundation.

      1. No they wouldn’t. They announce last week that pre-orders will be taken starting today for a week, at which time they will fulfil the 10,000 in random order. The remaining orders will be fulfilled as soon as the production can get to them, again in random order.

        That means that there is no reason for everyone to pound on the websites at the exact same time. 

        It’s only because they have been saying that it will be the end of the month since about the 9th of February, and pre-announced last week that there would be a big announcement at 6am EST this morning that all the geeks were sitting there waiting. 

        There are things which go wrong, and there are things which you make go wrong. This is the latter.

    3. I don’t know the background to these guys, but as soon as I read “it’s out of our hands”, it all felt a bit like they were washing their hands of it.

      If there’s going to be demand you don’t, as you noted, focus all the attention at one point on time.

      I suspect though that many websites *like* going down… it’s great PR. This article is an example… I hadn’t heard of them, but now I think “What is this… that’s so good that everyone wants one?”

      1. The melting slag heaps intermittently called their servers don’t appear to offer any north american store options or distribution partners, at least as of now. However, they’re just getting started.

      2.  The electronics component vendors that we *use* in the USA are  Digikey and Mouser. Farnell has an American branch called Newark, but they are our source of last resort. (Well, before Allied, but still…)

        RS is unheard of here.

  5. There seems to be a lot of people here who are experts on how things should have been done, and who have plenty of time to moan. Why don’t you volunteer that time and expertise to the foundation, I think they may be a bit overstretched right now.

  6. It seems to be a victim of its own success in getting the word out. Clueless yahoo consumers are falling over themselves to get a $35 computer, unaware that it isn’t built on the x86 architecture (nor what that even is or why it matters) and that you’ll need to prepare a Linux image on an SD card in order to even get it started.

    I look forward to joining many of you scouring Craigslist and eBay over the coming weeks while disappointed consumers give up on the technology they didn’t bother to investigate any further than the price and the first few bullet points.

    1. Who says anything about the willing DDoS participants being clueless? The fact it’s an arm computer and you have to go Linux is part of the charm.

      1. A significant number of people in that thread I linked wanted it only on the basis that it can run a port of XBMC (which isn’t even available for download yet!) so they saw the Pi as a cheap and simple home media PC. A number also talk about it as if it was an x86-architecture device.

        Yes, a significant number of inadvertent DDOSers were people who comprehend what the Pi is and want one on that basis. But they’re competing against slackjawed consumers who only see “plays h.264 video at 720p” and “$35” and don’t understand that the rest of the components under the hood are not their conventional Dell box.

  7. A very unprofessional launch indeed – the official tweets are so bad it’s embarrassing.

    One can only hope that this total lack of foresight and attention to detail was absent in the development stage.


    1. Sorry you feel it was unprofessional, but please consider the foundation is run by volunteers (and only a few of them) and we have been overwhelmed by the demand for the device. We had hoped by going to large distributors such as Farnell and RS that server problems would not occur (we were promise they had the bandwidth) but demand has proven otherwise.

      1. Face it, you just did not know how popular they would be and neither did the distributors.  All of us out here knew from just watching the blog.   It was also all over the internet and it seems Google should have made some kind of warning to you, because so many have been watching from afar.   

        I really hope you get everything under control and thank everyone for attempting such a worldwide feat.   Not easily done, but at least you did one hell of a job of not only building but also marketing it.  Many  companies would have sold their sole to have your problem.   

        1. Did you ‘know’ that the 2 suppliers websites would be getting 600 and 1100 hits PER SECOND? Did anyone in internet land KNOW that? I doubt it. I would hazard that that level of demand is almost unprecedented, and almost completely unpredicatable.

          1. Firstly, no they didn’t get 600 & 1100 h/s. That was the maximum capacity of the sites, and all hits above that were lost. That’s what happens in a slashdot effect.

            However, the exact load isn’t important. It was obvious to anyone who looked at the interest that the number of people who were interested were easily large enough to cause a DDOS. You admit yourself that there was 100k enquirers about it, and there are always going to be people who are interested but never contacted you, plus people who just find a link in a forum and try to buy it without knowing much about it.

            Therefore the problem shouldn’t have been trying to handle the DDOS, but to avoid it.

            Obvious steps to avoiding a DDOS are:

            1) Don’t send out a preannouncement saying ‘Set your alarm clocks’, so that everyone who is interested gets up at that same time and checks out the website. 

            2) Don’t have an incentive for everyone to try to buy at 6:00:01 EST, otherwise they loose out on the first 10,000, and have to wait for an unknown amount of time. Allow orders to be taken over a reasonable amount of time, but with the last order taken having the same chance of getting one as the first order. 

            3) Don’t put unnecessary load onto the suppliers servers. So don’t link to the front page and say ‘search for raspberry pi’. A search is one of the most resource intensive thing which a website can do, so by making people search you were dramatically reducing their capacity.

            4) Don’t give out the wrong information. Many people followed your instructions, went to the RS site and searched for Raspberry pi, and got the ‘express your interest page’. That directly contradicted the instructions on the raspberrypi.org page, so people thought they got the wrong page. This was reinforced by the twitter that you sent out saying “that’s the wrong page”. So people were searching again and again trying to get the right page.

            5) Don’t expect a site which is used to dealing with b2b customers to be able to handle b2c customers. The load patterns are very different. It’s a very different logistics problem to try to handle sending 10,000 componts to one location than 1 component to 10,000 locations.  Regardless of who is actually manufacturing them, a site which is used to taking order from masses of numbers of people should handle the actual orders.

  8. Apparently they’ll be continuously available starting in April – I can wait a couple months. http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/european-technology/the-35-raspberry-pi-computer-goes-on-sale/199?tag=content;selector-fd-river

  9. In this thread: 1st world problems.

    Don’t worry everyone, I’m sure we’ll all be able to get our hands on this new tinker-toy soon enough. Yes, the launch was rather bad but come on, it’s not like we’re being made to wait for a new iPhone. Let’s get some perspective here.

    1. You seem to be mistaking an analysis of the situation and the causes of the problem for butt-hurt.

      I didn’t know about this product until today and I’m not interested in buying one, but I’m still able to recognise the flaws in the release.

      You’re not witnessing consumer anger, simply commenters rationalising a situation. Or would calls to solve world hunger be a more appropriate response to an article about the mishandling of a products release?

      You my friend are the one who needs perspective; and context. This is BoingBoing, not the UN.

      1. Wait, what? You didn’t know about the product until today, don’t want one, but the secondary issue of whether the product release was handled well is of such interest to you that you feel moved to contradict (rather touchily I think) someone who is saying, quite rightly, that it’s not a big deal. Didn’t you just emphasise that this ISN’T the UN? :)

      2. Speaking of context; you seem to be mistaking a fatuous comment for the sake of (admittedly poor) humour for a serious one.

        But do not worry, my future observations on supply chains and product releases will be most serious in nature and lack even the slightest hint of drollery.

      3. Exactly.

        People seem to think I’m upset because I didn’t get a Pi. Nothing could be further from the truth, I never expected to get one today, simply because I can count and realized that the demand would outstrip supply.

        However whenever a process goes wrong, it’s important to analyze what when wrong, and what could have been done to prevent it, so that future instances are more successful. This is true if you’re talking about something as earthshattering as Fukishama, or as trivial as where did I loose my keys.

        This is obviously more towards the latter end of the spectrum, but that’s no reason not to analyze it and find out why these preventable mistakes were not prevented.

        1. Wow.  So, to recap, you have no reason to get on your high horse, but you’re going to do it anyway, because someone is wrong on teh internetz!!11!!?  Hilarious, really.

          But dude; get a life.

      4. You’re not witnessing consumer anger, simply commenters rationalising a situation.

        Funny, looks a lot more like nerd-rage or, as you said, “consumer anger” to me.  Did you actually read the thread?  People seem to be furious at this tiny non-profit startup for not having Apple’s distribution capabilities.

  10. Hi all,

    When selecting the distributors, the foundation chose two of the largest component distributors in the world, who told the Foundation that their servers would be able to handle the load. They were warned that the traffic would be very high. And they still said they would be able to handle the load. Can anyone suggest what else the Foundation could have done to try and ensure things went smoothly?

    The Foundation has been extremely disappointed with the performance of the servers, and also some other issues to do with the launch. We had hoped for, and been promised, better from these people.

    Pre-orders prior to launch would not have helped. It would simply have put the load to a different point in time. When the same thing would probably have happened. The demand has been MUCH higher even than anticipated.

    So, in precis, we are sorry about the ordering problems. There is little that can be done now about it. Lessons have been learnt. Please remember the foundation is run by a very few volunteers (although with considerable business experience), and we cannot get everything right.

    1. I’m going to take your implication that you are part of RPI at face value. Look at this as proof that there’s a high demand for the thing you and everyone at RPI is doing. Did it start roughly? Yes. Are people grumpy because things didn’t work perfectly? Maybe. Is the peanut gallery hooting scorn and criticism at the fact that burst traffic greatly exceeded capacity? Eeeyyup.

      In the long term, this will be a blip on the radar; I’m not mad, and I’m anticipating the chance where I get to buy one myself to play with.

      Thank you for your hard work, jamesh65, and please extend my thanks to the whole Foundation. I think I speak for most of the happy mutants here, because these are growing pains that will be forgotten by most in time. Some people just need a little extra bile to get Wednesday off at the right speed, I guess.

    2. Sorry, i’m going to be a little bit harsh.

      You guys, should have MAKE SURE that the suppliers could handle it.You have mismanaged it, and all that youhave to say is “It’s not our fault, is the suppliers’If I make such an error I’ll get fired, immediatly.

      And, what’s the point to pre-annunce the launch? Concentrate the load in a single moment, make the thing even worse (actually you were NOT SURE that the servers could handle it) ?

      1. The load of the servers was WAYYYY higher than anyone (even with their wildest estimation) predicted. How do you propose we predicted the demand so that we could tell the suppliers? We have mailing list of about 100k people.  What would predict from that?

        You cannot fire volunteers BTW!

        1. Wait. The story so far was “it’s not our fault, we warned the suppliers that the load will be high, and they said ‘no problem'”.
          Now it’s “the estimates were wrong”.

          Either way, it’s important to acknoledge the mistake and not hide behind “it’s not our fault”. There’s your name on it, it’s your fault.
          And how elix said above, it’s going to pass

          1. Indeed. But when you are promised by a supplier that they can handle your requirements (I believe they said their servers could handle any demand thrown at them), it’s a little disappointing when they cannot maintain that promise. 

            We had a estimate of demand (if anyone has a scheme for getting a better estimate than mailing list enquiries, 100k, forum members 30k, Twitter followers 25k, please post). Remember, only 10k were made in the first batch as well through  funding constraints. What demand estimate would people here think would be appropriate?

            I haven’t changed the story, estimates and the suppliers ability to conform to those estimates are equivalent. However, the estimates were woefully low. This is the unexpected bit. Very unexpected.

          2. “However, the estimates were woefully low. This is the unexpected bit. Very unexpected”

            And that’s a mistake. Your mistake. Aknowledge this. Just after joy for it, you’re mush more loved than expected

          3.  Pipe down and get a life!  I doubt the distributors WANTED their everyday business restricted by this interuption.   20:20 hindsight.

          4. @LMC Just to give you some idea, the Farnell website was getting 600 hits/second, the RS site had >1M hits in 15 minutes (>1000hits/second). Would you have predicted levels that high?  How many providers round the world could have coped with that level of demand? I guess you could say the foundation made a ‘mistake’ in not predicting that level of interest, but I would hazard a guess that anyone else in the same position would also have made the same ‘mistake’.

          5. @jamesh65:disqus You can belive me or not, but 1000 hits/second was my guessing.

            This come from the pre-announce. The 150k people interested in the rpi were all lined up and ready the exact same second, that load (150k simultaneous connections) could bring down almost anything. Just after that the f5-mashing has started, making things worse.

            Talking about things that would cope with that, have thought about amazon aws ?

        2.  As a guy who tried to order one last night, I can say that I am *NOT* disappointed about the servers being hammered or the web pages being down.

          What *DID* totally annoy me was the fact that the one web page that I could reach (RS) only had a form for expressing interest.  What I expected was “Yes, we have some, please order” or “No, they are sold out.”

          Things sell out .. that is expected.  Servers get hammered .. I certainly expected that.  But to not even be able to find the right page even though I followed the directions on the main page, that was clearly an error.  You should have had direct links to the order page, and your partners should have put a “sold out” sign on the page once the supply was gone.  Just doing those simple things would have helped a LOT.

          Also, you could have changed the static home page to say something like “sorry, all sold out” so that everybody knows what is going on from the one page that did NOT go down.  It is 22 hours after the sale started, and your home page still implies that you can order one right now.

          Now, about the fact that Newark wants $20 shipping and handling: will that ever drop?  Will Farnell ship Newark 10,000 boards so that the shipping drops to something below $10?

          BTW: I am still a huge fan.  Thanks for the hard work.

      2. ’If I make such an error I’ll get fired, immediatly.

        It’s a good thing your job doesn’t involve text processing, grammar and typing then.

        1. Yeah, i’m very lucky!

          (Sorry, english isn’t my primary language, so I hope you can forgive me some errors and/or typos untill my point is understandable, and, if you like, you can address the errors so I can corrext myself)

          1. You’re begging for forgiveness after announcing how harsh you’re going to be?

            Do you do stand-up comedy?

          2. I’m not begging anyone. I hoped.

            Now (with my very bad english), after ‘announcing’, I make a bet.
            I bet that you have understood what I said in my (a little bit harsh) message and in this message. Despite all my grammar mistakes, typos.

            Isn’t it?

      3. Quick Q for LMC. How would you MAKE SURE that the suppliers could handle it? I mean, exactly what would you ask, and how would you prove their answer to be correct?

          1. But that doesn’t answer the question of how much demand they can cope with – 1k hits/minute? 5k hits/minute? 10k hits/minute? And how to predict that demand in the first place.

          2.  I doubt those sites were hardened against even 1k, there’s no need in their normal course of business. You have a geeky product blessed by the halo effect. Nothing less than support from a top tier provider (AWS, etc) could have keep those servers up.

        1. Jamesh, anyone could be 100% sure on that matter.

          I would hire a professional. If I’m the professional I would have asked for raw numbers. And studied, it’s not my job and I have to learn the metrics to be applied.

          (I think) you guys have done your homeworks and done what I said (and more, fwiw). But you were wrong (so I could be myself in your situation), just aknowledge it.

    3. It’s an interesting lesson in different kinds of markets. Both Farnell and RS are, as you say, huge. If you ask either of them for a gazillion of the same component, they don’t twitch, they can easily supply them. Apparently neither company understood that a gazillion people trying to order a single unit each is a different server load.

      But how did either company claim they would handle orders from private individuals, rather than companies? I’ve ordered from both, professionally and as  a hobbyist. Professionally they are excellent, but as an individual I’ve found them equally terrible. In one unfortunate incident, one of the above even managed to bill my former employer for my parts, because they picked up my old details on their database – that was awkward.

      RP is still a very cool idea though – I can wait for the lumps to pass before placing an order.

    4.  I know it may go against the ideals of the Foundation BUT the pent up demand could have been reduced somewhat by selling the first 10k at (say) twice the price – hence raising funds for device donations (where does the buy one donate one scheme end up now?).

    5.  Pre-orders prior to launch would not have helped.

      Unless, of course, you handled it on some kind of random basis, as I saw several people suggest in your forums over the last few months.

      What gets me a little bit is that I haven’t seen any announcements through the mailing list since the 1st, and evidently didn’t check the website at the right time to see any impending announcements about this.  I’d already expected the mongol hordes of the internet to prevent any chance at purchasing, but didn’t expect to not even hear about it until hours after the event.

    6. What was preventing you from taking pre-orders say six months ago where you took a credit card number and placed a hold for the value of the units, but didn’t charge until the boards were actually made?

    7.  Don’t worry about the haters too much, the product looks awesome and I can’t wait until it becomes more generally available so that I can get one myself. 

  11. Back in the real world, I’m actually happy that a licensing deal is in place so we won’t have to worry about small batches becoming availble now and then, much better ‘business model’ I’d have thought.

    And can’t help but picture all the Comic Store Guys out there, arms crossed, “worst release, ever!”

    1. Congratulations Internet.

      This could actually help out with publicity.
      ‘Demand so high it shut down two of the largest distributors servers.’
      ‘First Ten Thousand Units sell out in a matter of minutes.’

      Admittedly the somewhat sketchyness on details on whether the companies in question will handle individual purchases in a professional manner and shipping information to the US is kinda fail, but I expect by the time we get a constant stream of the little guys going it’ll all be ironed out.

      I can be patient. I’ve been eyeballing this project since last summer. I can wait a little longer.

  12. I, for one, expect any charitable organisation run by volunteers to have a complete global distribution infrastructure with multiple redundant backups in place on day one.
    Won’t someone think of the geeks who have to suffer the indignity of not having a cheap secondary linux machine. Some of these people are being forced to do coding on their primary desktop computers! Someone needs to set up a class action lawsuit!

  13. My problem isn’t with the load, etc, although that is irritating.  I have a problem with Farnell trying to take advantage of the situation and people.  $20 shipping on a small $35 product is highway robbery, and defeats the low cost board idea.  If it remains at a point where it is so expensive to get it, I will probably move on and stay with products like the BeagleBone to play with (even though I have been very excited about this system and the ideas behind it).

    They should have worked with distributors who wouldn’t have taken advantage of customers/supporters like that.

    As for demand, they have 100K registered with them, every tech forum has been talking about them, and when asked in the forums, most responded they would buy multiples immediately if possible.  My guess is they could have sold 500K-1M units if they would have had them ready to go.

  14. My non-educated solution would have been to put them on Ebay for sale.   They are large enough to handle the orders.  They also should have given the distribution to DHL to deliver the orders directly from China.  (I live on the east coast of the US and now get orders in is little is 7 days shipped directly from China and in most cases with free shipping). 

    If they needed a manufacturing rep.  there are Chinese companies that do just that – very cheaply or they could sign a long term contract with the manufacturer.   This would have kept their reputation in tack, and also the full license of the product.  Now what they done is add another company in the supply chain that will add to the price of the Raspberry Pi and less money to the charity.  They have also, in my opinion, lost all of quality control of the computers.  This has showed that they may be better off  just selling all rights to the product (in which I think they will do, if they have not for a small slice of each computer sold) and you will see that either of both of the distributors will be selling it under their own brand name at  inflated prices.   It is called business, and the bad thing for a non-profit is to try to produce revenue off of their own product if it is not handled correctly. 

    Someone should have been hired months ago to figure out how to handle the situation.    That could have been basically free.   Now I fear they have given away the product and the whole principle that it was developed for.  If you did not get one of the first computers you will see that you will be paying a higher price for it, and then it will just go away peacefully. 

    I am in so hopes the above does not happen and the Raspberry Pi foundation will do what they had planned, but for now it looks like they are on very shaky ground.  I hope I am wrong.

  15. It’s a shame they didn’t have a supply of small, high powered computers to make a cluster out of…  WAIT A MINUTE!

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