The draft of its official practices, third edition contains a requirement of human authorship:
The U.S. Copyright Office will register an original work of authorship, provided that the work was created by a human being. The copyright law only protects “the fruits of intellectual labor” that “are founded in the creative powers of the mind.” Trade-Mark Cases, 100 U.S. 82, 94 (1879). Because copyright law is limited to “original intellectual conceptions of the author,” the Office will refuse to register a claim if it determines that a human being did not create the work. Burrow-Giles Lithographic Co. v. Sarony, 111 U.S. 53, 58 (1884). The Office will not register works produced by nature, animals, or plants. Likewise, the Office cannot register a work purportedly created by divine or supernatural beings, although the Office may register a work where the application or the deposit copy(ies) state that the work was inspired by a divine spirit.
The first example given of something the U.S. Copyright Office will not register is, of course, "a photograph taken by a monkey". The others are:
• A mural painted by an elephant.
• A claim based on the appearance of actual animal skin.
• A claim based on driftwood that has been shaped and smoothed by the ocean.
• A claim based on cut marks, defects, and other qualities found in natural stone.
Registration with the U.S. Copyright Office is not required for copyright protection, which takes effect when a work is created. However, registration provides significant legal advantages, such as the ability to receive statutory damages in lawsuits.
"Investigators say the teacher contacted school officials after seeing the message containing the words "gun" and "take care of business," and police were then notified on Tuesday."
Ryan Hamilton might not have seen the Nissan Altima coming outside of his home in New Jersey. After all, it was 2:30 a.m. on a Sunday. By the time its driver had run him over, then run him over twice again in an attempt to get away, he probably knew it was there. And when the driver told him "Look what you did to my car," it's a fair bet he knew what had struck him. Read the rest
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In a Korean-language press release issued Wednesday, North Korea said that U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry was a "wolf donning the mask of sheep," but cursed with a "hideous lantern jaw." Read the rest
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