Colonies of ants base decisions like where to establish a nest based on their population density. Scientists theorize that ants can estimate how many of their kind are around by randomly exploring the area and bumping into other ants. New research from MIT computer scientists not only supports this theory but could also be used to analyze social networks, improve robot swarms, and yield improve algorithms for networked communications in distributed computing applications. From MIT News:
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“It’s intuitive that if a bunch of people are randomly walking around an area, the number of times they bump into each other will be a surrogate of the population density,” says Cameron Musco, an MIT graduate student in electrical engineering and computer science and a co-author on the new paper. “What we’re doing is giving a rigorous analysis behind that intuition, and also saying that the estimate is a very good estimate, rather than some coarse estimate. As a function of time, it gets more and more accurate, and it goes nearly as fast as you would expect you could ever do.”
Musco and his coauthors — his advisor, NEC Professor of Software Science and Engineering Nancy Lynch, and Hsin-Hao Su, a postdoc in Lynch’s group — characterize an ant’s environment as a grid, with some number of other ants scattered randomly across it. The ant of interest — call it the explorer — starts at some cell of the grid and, with equal probability, moves to one of the adjacent cells. Then, with equal probability, it moves to one of the cells adjacent to that one, and so on.
MIT Media Lab researchers developed software to design and 3D print hair-like structures in bulk. Eventually, the 3D-printed hair could be used as sensors, actuators modeled on the cilia in our own lungs, and even Velcro-like adhesives for robots and other devices.
Their innovation was actually on the software side of the 3D-printing process. From MIT News:
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Instead of using conventional computer-aided design (CAD) software to draw thousands of individual hairs on a computer — a step that would take hours to compute — the team built a new software platform, called “Cilllia,” that lets users define the angle, thickness, density, and height of thousands of hairs, in just a few minutes.
Using the new software, the researchers designed arrays of hair-like structures with a resolution of 50 microns — about the width of a human hair. Playing with various dimensions, they designed and then printed arrays ranging from coarse bristles to fine fur, onto flat and also curved surfaces, using a conventional 3-D printer...
To demonstrate adhesion, the team printed arrays that act as Velcro-like bristle pads. Depending on the angle of the bristles, the pads can stick to each other with varying forces. For sensing, the researchers printed a small furry rabbit figure, equipped with LED lights that light up when a person strokes the rabbit in certain directions.
And to see whether 3-D-printed hair can help actuate, or move objects, the team fabricated a weight-sorting table made from panels of printed hair with specified angles and heights.
Architect Ron Arad designed this lovely indoor/outdoor shelter, called the Armadillo Tea Pavilion
. The shells are made from the likes of oiled plywood or PVDF-coated timber composite. The hardware is brass and bronze.
The Armadillo Tea Canopy is designed as an independent shell structure, for use indoors and outdoors, and provides an intimate enclosure, shelter or place of reflection within a garden, landscape, or large internal space. In its basic configuration, the Pavilion comprises 5 moulded shells, each made of repeatable, modular components which are mechanically-fixed together with exposed fixings and stiffening brackets. The modularity of components provides freedom to configure the tea canopy to suit a number of arrangements, which can be expanded when using additional shells.
A limited number of Armadillo Tea Pavilions are available from Revolution Precrafted.
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Stanford engineers demonstrated how six tiny microTug robots -- with gripping, adhesive feet inspired by geckos -- can work together to pull a 4,000 pound car on polished concrete, albeit very very slowly.
The researchers from Stanford's Biomimetics & Dexterous Manipulation Laboratory published their work on the microTug bots in the current issue of the journal IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters.
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The University of Maryland Robotics Center's new Robo Raven III V4 soars on larger flapping wings that "have flexible solar cells giving the vehicle an extra 10 Watts of power. This allows this robotic bird to fly longer and recharge outdoors." Read the rest
National Geographic profiles Robert Wood, Harvard's maker of micro-robots inspired by nature, like these programmable bees. Read the rest
Researchers at Greece's Institute of Computer Science have demonstrated the Octobot, a shoebox-sized swimming robot propelled by eight webbed arms. Video below. Read the rest
UC Berkeley researchers took inspiration from a turkey's color-changing wattle to design a biosensor that detects toxins or pathogens. Turkey wattles change between blue and red as the blood vessels between the collagen fibers swell or contract. The researchers used benign viruses to self-assemble into collagen fiber-like structures that change colors as they expand and contract when exposed to chemicals like hexane, methanol, and even TNT.
“In our lab, we study how light is generated and changes in nature, and then we use what we learn to engineer novel devices,” said professor Seung-Wuk Lee who co-led the research.
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MIT researchers built a 70-pound robot "cheetah" meant to demonstrate the high efficiency of a new electric motor design. Among other improvements, the design enables the impact energy of the robot's leg hitting the ground to be captured and fed into the robot's battery. Soon, they expect the motors to enable the cheetah-bot to gallop at 35 mph which, of course, is still just half the speed of a real cheetah. However, it will hit those speeds much more efficiently than other running robots. Read the rest
The biology behind the green glow of Japanese freshwater eels could lead to new tests for jaundice and liver problems. RIKEN research institute scientists determined that a substance found in bile, bilirubin, is what triggers a protein in the eel, called UnaG (after unagi), to glow. Turns out, the amount of bilirubin in humans is a good indicator of liver health. Using a synthetic version of UnaG, the scientists could measure the bilirubin in a blood sample based on its glow. A similar technique may also aid in the study of tumors. "An eel's glow could illuminate liver disease" (Science News) Read the rest
This is a microscopic image of a porcupine quill. Harvard medical researcher Jeffrey Karp and his colleagues are studying the quills to determine whether they might inspire a new design in hypodermic needles. According to their paper published today in PNAS, the barbs on the quill enable it to slide in smoothly but keep it in place, characteristics that would be useful in, say, an IV drip. (Smithsonian)
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