Back around 500 BCE or so in what is now York, U.K, a gentleman was decapitated for who-knows-why and his head quickly buried. To the amazement of the archaeologists who dug up the skull in 2008, the cranium still contained a well-preserved brain. According to University of London neurologist Axel Petzold and his colleagues, understanding how the tissue has survived for more than 2,500 years may lead to new methods for extracting valuable information from ancient tissue. From Science:
Using several molecular techniques to examine the remaining tissue, the researchers figured out that two structural proteins—which act as the "skeletons" of neurons and astrocytes—were more tightly packed in the ancient brain. In a yearlong experiment, they found that these aggregated proteins were also more stable than those in modern-day brains. In fact, the ancient protein clumps may have helped preserve the structure of the soft tissue for ages..
The research also could provide insight into protein-based neurological diseases like Alzheimer's and dementia.
"Protein aggregate formation permits millennium-old brain preservation" (Journal of the Royal Society Interface)