I recently needed to glue wood together in a real hurry and tried a product called RapidFuse that didn't do too well. Annoyed, I decided to look for tests of the zillion wood glues now available so I could find something with a 15-minute set that works. It turns out I'm asking too much, really, but I did find Wood by Wright's incredibly exhaustive series of tests on dozens of different products. The overview video is embedded above; with more details for the thirsty and the 64-brand follow-up.
The data collected is presented in a single enormous spreadsheet at Google Docs.
The absolute best product depends on grain and exposure to the elements, but Elmer's Wood Glue Max [Amazon] is a clear winner for standard indoor woodworking projects with DAP Plastic Resin Glue [Amazon] winning if you're outdoors.