Because raycasters are so fast and simple, you can try lots of ideas quickly. You could make a dungeon crawler, first-person shooter, or a grand-theft-auto style sandbox. Hell, the constant-time makes me want to build an oldschool MMORPG with a massive, procedurally generated world. Here are a few challenges to get you started:
* Immersion. This example is begging for full-screen mouse-lock with a rainy background and thunderclaps synchronized to the lightning.
* An indoors level. Replace the skybox with a symmetric gradient or, if you're feeling plucky, try rendering floor and ceiling tiles (think of it this way: they're just the spaces between the walls you're already drawing!)
* Lighting objects. We already have a fairly robust lighting model. Why not place lights in the world and compute wall lighting based on them? Lights are 80% of atmosphere.
* Good touch events. I've hacked in a couple of basic touch controls so folks on phones and tablets can try out the demo, but there's huge room for improvement.
* Camera effects. For example, zooming, blurring, drunk mode, etc. With a raycaster this are surprisingly simple. Start by modifying camera.fov in the console.
A first-person engine in 265 lines (Thanks, Hunter!)