The term "engineering games" covers a lot of things, from casual Theme Park clones to elaborate Factorio-style machinery, but all of them scratch the itch for building systems that work within the rules of a computer simulation. Check out Awesome Engineering Games, Roger Tuan's list of contemporary offerings neatly organized by genre.
Games are divided into broad categories based on the type(s) of engineering they're most related to, such as civil engineering & city-building, transportation & route-building, computer science & electrical engineering, etc. See the Table of Contents for a full breakdown of categories.
Feel free to suggest new games or update existing titles! For now, please create a new Issue (or Pull Request if you know how). Easier submissions and better instructions are coming soon.